Interactive instruction means that teachers continually engage students in dialogues and activities and ensure that all students participate.   

After providing explicit instruction, teachers ask questions that check not only students’ knowledge and understanding but also their ability to use higher-level thinking (e.g., applying, reasoning, analyzing, and evaluating).  Teachers guide and prompt (coach) as students attempt each task. Teachers continue to provide support (scaffold) as needed and withdraw support (fade) when students can independently perform the task.  As students articulate what they have learned, reflect on their performance, and then perform each task independently after achieving mastery, they develop habits of mind that serve them well throughout their education and their lives. Activities that are relevant to the objective and advance students’ learning develop mastery. 

 

WRTR p.5

 

 

When teachers explain the purpose of each new task and how students will be able to use their new skills, attention and motivation are enhanced.

Explicit instruction means that every new skill, procedure, or concept is modeled, i.e., explained and demonstrated.   

WRTR p. 5

 

ESL, (English as a Second Language), ELL, (English Language Learners), or ESOL, (English for Speakers of Other Languages), no matter what it's called The Writing Road to Reading is the program of proven results for those whose primary language is other than English.

 


The National Reading Panel (NRP) identified Phonemic Awareness, Systematic Phonics, Vocabulary, Text Comprehension, and Fluency as the components of effective instruction for English speaking children. Research verifies the same five components for teaching English learners (see page 2 of SEI News 24-3). All NRP components are taught in The Writing Road to Reading. In addition, diagnostic teaching and differentiated instruction are embedded in The Method, making adaptation to the needs of English learners, and all students, part of daily instruction.

 

Unlike most programs that teach spelling, writing, and reading in separate units, Spalding's integrated instruction reinforces skill and concept acquisition and provides multiple opportunities for practice and application. Word usage, handwriting, and syllable division are taught in spelling and reinforced in the writing lesson. Integrated instruction is especially important for students unfamiliar with the sounds and conventions of spoken and written English. 

 

Dyslexia is a learning disability that makes it difficult to read, write, and spell.

Research has determined that dyslexia and other reading difficulties stem from a core deficit in phonological awareness, a skill that is needed to associate spoken words with written language.

H. Lee Swanson, Ph.D., Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of California at Riverside, analyzed the results of 92 scientifically-based research studies to identify the specific teaching methods and instructional components that proved most effective for increasing word recognition and reading comprehension skills.

Sound instructional practices include:

 statements of instructional objectives, matching the difficulty level to the task and to the student

 explicit, systematic instruction

 guided practice, independent practice, daily reviews, and evaluations to ensure students master the material.

The Writing Road to Reading incorporates all the recommended interventions and is a diagnostic method. Instruction is constantly monitored and tailored to the individual needs of students. Differentiated instruction is thus embedded in The Spalding Method.

 

"The most important outcome of teaching word recognition," Dr. Swanson emphasized, "is that students learn to recognize real words, not simply sound out 'nonsense' words using phonics skills."

The Writing Road to Reading uses high frequency words that are already part of most students' spoken vocabularies. Students begin by learning to decode the words they will encounter most often in text, an advantage for students with learning disabilities and all students.

The 45-hour Multisensory Instruction of Language Arts training courses have been recognized through the International Dyslexia Association (IDA) Standardsreview process.